• More than half of the U.S. coal mines operating in 2008 ...

    2019-1-30 · Another method, area mining, occurs on relatively flat terrain. Contour strip mining accounted for more than half of the surface mine closures between 2008 and 2017. Open-pit coal mining is a combination of contour and area mining methods and is used to mine thick, steeply inclined coalbeds. In contrast to other forms of mining, open pit mines ...

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  • Surface Mining | PDF | Surface Mining | Mining

    2021-5-20 · Surface mining is the predominant exploitation method worldwide. In the USA, surface mining contributes about 85% of all minerals exploitation (excluding petroleum and natural gas). Almost all metallic ore (98%) and non-metallic ore (97%), and 61% of the coal is mined using surface methods in the USA (Hartman and Mutmansky, 2002).

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  • (PDF) Mining Methods: Part I-Surface mining

    2021-12-6 · Strip mining is ideally applied where the surface of the ground and the ore body itself ar e relatively horizontal and not too deep under the surfa ce, and …

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  • What is contour strip mining?

    Coal Surface Mining, Contour Mining. Coal Contour Surface ''Strip'' Mining. The Contour or Bench method of surface or strip mining is usually associated with coal, where a seam or multiple seams are located at a certain elevation or elevations through a mountain or hill.

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  • MSHA

    2014-7-24 · Method of Mining T&W Enterprises, LLC, utilizes the contour method of strip mining at the No. 1 Mine with 2 front-end loaders, 2 trucks, 1 bulldozer and 1 highwall drill. After the bulldozer is used to prepare a drill bench, a pattern of 6 " diameter holes are drilled with an Ingersoll DM-45 highwall drill.

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  • Kenneth L. Leathers

    Costs of Strip Mine Reclamation in the West Kenneth L. Leathers'' INTRODUCTION Surface-mined coal accounts for about 60 percent of the Nation''s annual coal sup- ply. At current levels of coal production, at least 55,000 acres of land are dis- turbed annually by such mining. Increasing demand for energy resources, coupled with

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  • SURFACE MINE PERMITS OPEN AS OF 12/1/2021

    2021-12-3 · marfork coal company slip ridge contour s00300809 4609376 raleigh 4 ... rockwell mining,llc eagle surface mine s00500613 4609513 wyoming 2 scjl co-leasing corp. inc. laurita mine #1 s00200111 4609408 monongalia 1 skyway strip, inc. skyway ii mine s00400909 4606609 mcdowell 2 skyway strip, inc. ...

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  • Coal Contour Surface "Strip" Mining

    Strip Mining - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

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  • (PDF) Mining Methods: Part I-Surface mining

    2021-12-6 · Strip mining is ideally applied where the surface of the ground and the ore body itself ar e relatively horizontal and not too deep under the surfa ce, and a wide area is av ailable to be mined in ...

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  • Commonly used mining techniques to extract minerals

    2018-1-5 · Contour strip mining and area strip mining are the two forms of strip mining, which is often used to extract coal and lignite. Strip mining is feasible only when the ore deposits are located near the surface of the ore body. In contour strip mining, bulldozers or power shovels are deployed to take away huge amounts of ground material in ...

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  • Strip Mining: A Destructive Way of Coal Extraction ...

    2017-3-12 · Surface or strip mining damages and pollutes ecosystems to a great degree. This is because by definition the process of strip mining involves striping away trees, plants and topsoil so that the coal can be accessed underneath. …

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  • Coal Surface Mining

    Surface Mining is a form of mining for ore material on the surface layer of the Earth''s crust. This method is famous with coal mining. I will be sharing the general steps that are present in this method. 1.Removing the trees and vegetation …

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  • MSHA

    The Paynter Branch Surface Mine is located near Oceana, Wyoming County, West ia. The Buffalo, Winifrede, Cedar Grove, and Alma coal seams are mined utilizing both contour and mountaintop mining methods. The mine works two-10 hour production shifts a day, five days per week, and employs 41 people.

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  • strip mining | Britannica

    2021-12-11 · strip mining, removal of soil and rock (overburden) above a layer or seam (particularly coal), followed by the removal of the exposed mineral.. The common strip-mining techniques are classified as area mining or contour mining on the basis of the deposit geometry and type. The cycle of operations for both techniques consists of vegetation clearing, soil …

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  • Pros and Cons of Strip Mining | APECSEC

    2015-2-25 · For those who are unfamiliar, strip mining is a form of surface mining that focuses on the collection of tar sand and coal, which both rest somewhat close to Earth''s surface. Those who support strip mining point to the increased ease …

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  • Regulation of Coal Strip Mining+

    of strip-mined land to its pre-mining state upon the cessation of mine operation. Surface coal mines, as well as the surface operations of un derground coal mines, must return utilized land to approximate original contour and productivity. Reclaimed land must be revegetated and sta blized so as to prevent soil erosion and damage to hydrologie ...

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  • Surface mining – strip, open pit, mountaintop removal ...

    2021-7-15 · Surface mining is a form of mining in which the soil and the rock covering the mineral deposits are removed. It is the other way of underground mining, in which the overlying rock is left behind, and the required mineral …

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  • Environmental Protection in Surface Mining of Coal

    Block-cut method: Controlled placement of spoil, steps ht 5, and 6. Auger Mining Auger mining (Figure 5*0 is usually associated with contour strip mining. It is common practice to recover additional tonnage after the coal/overburden ratio has become too small to render further contour strip mining economical.

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  • Mine Plan

    Contour surface mining takes advantage of the low strip ratio coal reserves adjacent to the outcrop. Contour mining equipment includes a drill, loader, bulldozers, and trucks. The steps in contour mining begin with drilling and blasting a triangle shaped portion of overburden (in cross section) above the coal to be mined.

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  • Coal Contour Surface "Strip" Mining

    2001-12-9 · The Contour or Bench method of surface or strip mining is usually associated with coal, where a seam or multiple seams are located at a certain elevation or elevations through a mountain or hill. Contour mining allows for the …

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  • Mining | Coal Mines

    Surface techniques can be broadly classified into (1) contour strip mining, (2) area strip mining, (3) open-pit mining, and (4) auger mining. Contour strip mining. Contour mining is commonly practiced where a coal seam outcrops in rolling or hilly terrain.

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  • Open-pit Mining, Opencast Mining, Open-cut Mining, Strip ...

    2021-7-15 · But after World War II surface coal mining was enveloped by auger mining, which is a normal part of contour operations. Surface mining was referred to as strip mining or stripping or sometimes as surface mining itself. They often failed to differentiate these different methods of mining. Sometimes it was also called contour mining as it was the ...

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  • Chapter 2: The Environmental Effects of Strip Mining

    2021-12-2 · This section describes the five main types of surface coal mining techniques: area mining, open pit mining, contour mining, auger mining, and mountaintop removal. Underground mining is also considered in this section. Terrain, economics, and custom generally dictate which technique an operator chooses.. All surface or strip mining first removes the overlying …

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  • North Dakota Geological Survey

    The Freedom Mine is the currently the largest mine in the state mining approximately 16 million tons of coal annually, equalling the total of all of the other mines combined. About one third of the coal mined at the Freedom Mine is …

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  • History of Illinois Coal Mines

    2019-5-6 · Coal being a non-renewable natural resource, strip mining is a conservation measure. In strip mining, 95% to 98% of the coal is recovered whereas in shaft mines the basis of recovery is from 50% to 60%. Since strip mining began in Illinois to the end of 1953, 339,414,839 tons have been produced by that method.

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  • Strip Mining of Coal: A Federal Response to State …

    2020-10-13 · STRIP MINING OF COAL: A FEDERAL RESPONSE TO STATE LEGISLATION. There are three methods of surface or strip mining,'' each developed for a particular type of landscape, area stripping, contour stripping and auger stripping. 2 . During the past thirty years, the amount of coal pro-duced by strip mining has quadrupled.''

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  • KY Coal Facts

    2018-1-5 · Kentucky has two distinct coal fields, each containing numerous deposits of bituminous coal of various characteristics and mines of every type and size. In surface mining the use of large mining equipment maximizes the …

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  • Competitiveness and performance prediction of surface …

    2016-10-28 · Competitiveness and performance prediction of surface coal mining by Mussa Daniel Budeba Presented as partial ful lment for the degree Philosophiae Doctor (Mining)

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  • Strip Mining

    Andrew P. Schissler, in Encyclopedia of Energy, 2004 2.3 Strip Mining. Strip mining is employed in coal reserves where the overburden is removed in rectangular blocks in plan view called pits or strips. The pits are parallel and adjacent to each other. Strip mining is fundamentally different from contour or area mining on how the overburden is displaced, called spoil handling.

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  • Commonly used mining techniques to extract coal

    2018-1-25 · Contour strip mining, area strip mining and auger mining are other techniques followed in surface mining of coal. In case of strip mining, coal seams are reached by removing the surface above them. The surface, which is referred to as overburden, is removed in long strips in this coal mining technique.

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  • Reclamation Costs of strip-mined land in Western North …

    2019-8-15 · of mine conditions. The effects on reclamation cost of different physical characteris­ tics of coal mines and requirements of the Federal Surface Mining Control and Recla­ mation Act of 1977 were also examined. The cost of reclamation under the condi­ tions assumed was $6,500 per mined acre. The federal legislation would add an

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